Jekyll is a static website generator that takes Markdown, Textile, HTML, or other formats and transforms them into a complete static website. The platform is extremely customizable and extensible.
While building a Jekyll website isn't for everyone, it is a powerful platform that allows your website to perform great and be extremely secure. In fact, I run my own blog off of Jekyll, Amazon S3, and CloudFront. "Learning Jekyll By Example" walks you through this entire process, so if you'd like to learn how to setup your blog in the same fashion, this tutorial is for you.
When I first started my blog, I used Tumblr. I didn't choose it for the social integration or community, but rather to offload the management of servers to a third party.
My decision was justified when one of my posts, Captchas Are Becoming Ridiculous, hit the top spot of Hacker News. Over the course of two days, over 22,000 visitors visited my post. It's common to see the servers of front page Hacker News posts struggle or even go down entirely due to the surge of traffic, but thanks to Tumblr, my website stayed online the entire time.
But while Tumblr was resilient to sudden surges in traffic, the service has had its struggles and periodically went offline. There's several huge, day long gaps in my Analytics-- a sign I need to move to another platform.
Moving to Jekyll gave me the opportunity to give my entire website a facelift and bring the design of both my portfolio and blog in line. Building the new theme, which is based on Bootstrap, and learning how to use the Liquid template system and Jekyll took less than two working days.
Like before, I'm not managing my own servers. While I love Heroku, I also wanted to be able to scale and manage a sudden spike in traffic. Because this website is now static HTML, a single Heroku instance would probably have been fine, but I took the opportunity to experiment with some new technology.
This Jekyll site is hosted on Amazon S3 and the Amazon CloudFront CDN. As a result, it's like my website and blog is being hosted on multiple servers around the United States and Europe rather than a single instance as it would have been if I hosted with Heroku. This allows for the website to be blazing fast, no matter where my visitors are on the planet.
CloudFront has a limit of nearly 1,000 megabits per second of data transfer and 1,000 requests per second by default. If I were to need additional capacity, I could always request an increase, but at these maximum rates, I would be handling over 300 TB a data month and 2.6 billion page views. Somehow I don't think I'll ever hit that.
By moving to CloudFront, my blog received a massive performance upgrade. According to Pingdom's tool, my blog loads faster than 97% to 100% of websites, depending on the page visited.
With images, my page loads in approximately 370ms-- pretty good for how large the images are. It takes over 250 ms for the fastest image to download, so if optimized, I'm confident I'll be able to decrease the load time to under 250ms once again.
The blog home page has no images-- only the Elusive web font for the social media icons in the sidebar. The font weighs in at ~225 kb and adds nearly 50ms to the load time, for a total of approximately 300ms.
This is the most important page-- the majority of visitors to my website arrive from Google and land on one of these pages, so it must load quickly.
Thanks to Disqus, I'm seeing load times of 650ms, which is significantly worse than any other page on my website. Unfortunately, there's nothing I can do about this, and I feel that the ability to have a discussion is important and worth the extra load time.
The biggest cause of latency is external media, such as large photographs and the Elusive web font. To further optimize the page, I'll have to remove the Bootstrap icon set and the web font, opting for retina-resolution images for the social media buttons. To prevent additional requests, I can inline-embed these images into the CSS using base 64 encoding or use a sprite sheet.
Disqus also contributes significantly and causes over 70 different requests to an external server to load stylesheets and content. When compared to my website, which only makes 7 requests (including all web fonts and Google Analytics), you can see why the load time is significantly higher on blog articles with comments.
It's also important to note these numbers are from Pingdom's test-- a server with very high bandwidth. It will be significantly slower for those on 3G connections, but the gains will also be apparent.
These load times were't achieved by chance, but rather a large build process I wrote in a Makefile.
defer as to not block the page render.
s3cmd, all of the GZipped content is synced to Amazon S3 with the proper headers (
content-encoding as well as
cache-control: maxage) and the CloudFront distribution is invalidated. Unfortunately, S3 doesn't allow for the
Vary: Accept-Encoding header to be set (technically, this is right since the server doesn't actually vary GZipping based on browser capabilities), so many page speed tests will complain about this.
After the invalidation propagates, the website is then viewable with the new content.
By offloading all content processing (and GZipping) to my computer during build time versus during the actual request, as CloudFlare or another caching layer might do, we can shave off a few milliseconds.
I'm extremely happy with this new setup and it also gives me new flexibility I didn't have before with Tumblr, including the ability to enhance some of my articles with cool media and custom, per article layouts (a la The Verge). When I complete one of these articles, I'll be sure to do another writeup showing how it's done.
The past week I've been busy with a small project of mine that I've been planning on getting off the ground since March of last year-- Jekyll Themes. Jekyll Themes is a repository for authors to list themes and pre-built templates for the Jekyll static site generator.
While I've previously written about how to create a Jekyll website from scratch, a lot of developers or bloggers don't necessarily want to spend the time designing or creating a website from a blank canvas. Thankfully, there are a lot of great themes out there, but many of theme are spread throughout individual GitHub pages and projects. Hopefully, with Jekyll Themes, the themes scattered across the internet can be consolidated into a single listing where they are tagged by their color scheme, responsive-ness, or other attributes.
One thing I ran across when building my website with Jekyll, a static website generator, was that it restricted my ability to have dynamic content, such an HTML form and blog comments.
Disqus, a popular service that manages comments, alleviated the latter pain, however, the inability to have a simple contact form was huge. There are a couple third-party services that allow you to build forms, but many of them (such as Google Forms) are unnecessarily complex. They often embedded in iFrames or take you to their own domain to submit the form, meaning that they present visitors with a form that doesn't match the rest of the website stylistically, or are taken away from your website altogether.
To fix this, I built Formingo. Formingo is a new service that allows you to easily create HTML forms that get sent directly to your email address. It's completely free to use for up to 500 submissions a month, and there are a ton of new features coming. In fact, just today, I launched pre-verified email addresses and domains.
You can literally start using Formingo in seconds. If you have an existing HTML form, simply point it to
POST at the Formingo service URL and change the example email address to your own.
<input name="name" type="text" />
That's it. Once you change the action URL for your form, it'll immediately start working. You'll get all the fields in the form submitted directly to your email address.
I have several new features coming soon, including:
Let me know what you think about Formingo, and be sure to get in contact with me if you have a feature you'd like to see.